Raw content of Bio::Root::Exception #----------------------------------------------------------------- # $Id: Exception.pm,v 1.14 2002/06/29 00:42:17 sac Exp $ # # BioPerl module Bio::Root::Exception # # Cared for by Steve Chervitz <sac@bioperl.org> # # You may distribute this module under the same terms as perl itself #----------------------------------------------------------------- =head1 NAME Bio::Root::Exception - Generic exception objects for Bioperl =head1 SYNOPSIS =head2 Throwing exceptions using B<Error::throw()>: use Bio::Root::Exception; use Error; # Set Error::Debug to include stack trace data in the error messages $Error::Debug = 1; $file = shift; open (IN, $file) || throw Bio::Root::FileOpenException ( "Can't open file $file for reading", $!); =head2 Throwing exceptions using B<Bio::Root::Root::throw()>: # Here we have an object that ISA Bio::Root::Root, so it inherits throw(). open (IN, $file) || $object->throw(-class => 'Bio::Root::FileOpenException', -text => "Can't open file $file for reading", -value => $!); =head2 Catching and handling exceptions using B<Error::try()>: use Bio::Root::Exception; use Error qw(:try); # Note that we need to import the 'try' tag from Error.pm # Set Error::Debug to include stack trace data in the error messages $Error::Debug = 1; $file = shift; try { open (IN, $file) || throw Bio::Root::FileOpenException ( "Can't open file $file for reading", $!); } catch Bio::Root::FileOpenException with { my $err = shift; print STDERR "Using default input file: $default_file\n"; open (IN, $default_file) || die "Can't open $default_file"; } otherwise { my $err = shift; print STDERR "An unexpected exception occurred: \n$err"; # By placing an the error object reference within double quotes, # you're invoking its stringify() method. } finally { # Any code that you want to execute regardless of whether or not # an exception occurred. }; # the ending semicolon is essential! =head2 Defining a new Exception type as a subclass of Bio::Root::Exception: @Bio::TestException::ISA = qw( Bio::Root::Exception ); =head1 DESCRIPTION =head2 Exceptions defined in B<Bio::Root::Exception> These are generic exceptions for typical problem situations that could arise in any module or script. =over 8 =item Bio::Root::Exception() =item Bio::Root::NotImplemented() =item Bio::Root::IOException() =item Bio::Root::FileOpenException() =item Bio::Root::SystemException() =item Bio::Root::BadParameter() =item Bio::Root::OutOfRange() =item Bio::Root::NoSuchThing() =back Using defined exception classes like these is a good idea because it indicates the basic nature of what went wrong in a convenient, computable way. If there is a type of exception that you want to throw that is not covered by the classes listed above, it is easy to define a new one that fits your needs. Just write a line like the following in your module or script where you want to use it (or put it somewhere that is accessible to your code): @NoCanDoException::ISA = qw( Bio::Root::Exception ); All of the exceptions defined in this module inherit from a common base class exception, Bio::Root::Exception. This allows a user to write a handler for all Bioperl-derived exceptions as follows: use Bio::Whatever; use Error qw(:try); try { # some code that depends on Bioperl } catch Bio::Root::Exception with { my $err = shift; print "A Bioperl exception occurred:\n$err\n"; }; So if you do create your own exceptions, just be sure they inherit from Bio::Root::Exception directly, or indirectly by inheriting from a Bio::Root::Exception subclass. The exceptions in Bio::Root::Exception are extensions of Graham Barr's B<Error.pm> module available from CPAN. Despite this dependency, the Bio::Root::Exception module does not explicitly C<require Error>. This permits Bio::Root::Exception to be loaded even when Error.pm is not available. =head2 Throwing exceptions within Bioperl modules Error.pm is not part of the Bioperl distibution, and may not be present within any given perl installation. So, when you want to throw an exception in a Bioperl module, the safe way to throw it is to use B<Bio::Root::Root::throw()> which can use Error.pm when it's available. See documentation in Bio::Root::Root for details. =head1 SEE ALSO See the C<examples/exceptions> directory of the Bioperl distribution for working demo code. B<Bio::Root::Root::throw()> for information about throwing Bio::Root::Exception-based exceptions. B<Error.pm> (available from CPAN, author: GBARR) Error.pm is helping to guide the design of exception handling in Perl 6. See these RFC's: http://dev.perl.org/rfc/63.pod http://dev.perl.org/rfc/88.pod =head1 AUTHOR Steve Chervitz E<lt>sac@bioperl.orgE<gt> =head1 COPYRIGHT Copyright (c) 2001 Steve Chervitz. All Rights Reserved. This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. =head1 DISCLAIMER This software is provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. =head1 EXCEPTIONS =cut # Define some generic exceptions.' package Bio::Root::Exception; use strict; my $debug = $Error::Debug; # Prevents the "used only once" warning. my $DEFAULT_VALUE = "__DUMMY__"; # Permits eval{} based handlers to work =head2 B<Bio::Root::Exception> Purpose : A generic base class for all BioPerl exceptions. By including a "catch Bio::Root::Exception" block, you should be able to trap all BioPerl exceptions. Example : throw Bio::Root::Exception("A generic exception", $!); =cut #--------------------------------------------------------- @Bio::Root::Exception::ISA = qw( Error ); #--------------------------------------------------------- =head2 Methods defined by Bio::Root::Exception =over 4 =item B< new() > Purpose : Guarantees that -value is set properly before calling Error::new(). Arguments: key-value style arguments same as for Error::new() You can also specify plain arguments as ($message, $value) where $value is optional. -value, if defined, must be non-zero and not an empty string in order for eval{}-based exception handlers to work. These require that if($@) evaluates to true, which will not be the case if the Error has no value (Error overloads numeric operations to the Error::value() method). It is OK to create Bio::Root::Exception objects without specifing -value. In this case, an invisible dummy value is used. If you happen to specify a -value of zero (0), it will be replaced by the string "The number zero (0)". If you happen to specify a -value of empty string (""), it will be replaced by the string "An empty string ("")". =cut sub new { my ($class, @args) = @_; my ($value, %params); if( @args % 2 == 0 && $args[0] =~ /^-/) { %params = @args; $value = $params{'-value'}; } else { $params{-text} = $args[0]; $value = $args[1]; } if( defined $value and not $value) { $value = "The number zero (0)" if $value == 0; $value = "An empty string (\"\")" if $value eq ""; } else { $value ||= $DEFAULT_VALUE; } $params{-value} = $value; my $self = $class->SUPER::new( %params ); return $self; } =item pretty_format() Purpose : Get a nicely formatted string containing information about the exception. Format is similar to that produced by Bio::Root::Root::throw(), with the addition of the name of the exception class in the EXCEPTION line and some other data available via the Error object. Example : print $error->pretty_format; =cut sub pretty_format { my $self = shift; my $msg = $self->text; my $stack = ''; if( $Error::Debug ) { $stack = $self->_reformat_stacktrace(); } my $value_string = $self->value ne $DEFAULT_VALUE ? "VALUE: ".$self->value."\n" : ""; my $class = ref($self); my $title = "------------- EXCEPTION: $class -------------"; my $footer = "\n" . '-' x CORE::length($title); my $out = "\n$title\n" . "MSG: $msg\n". $value_string. $stack. $footer . "\n"; return $out; } # Reformatting of the stack performed by _reformat_stacktrace: # 1. Shift the file:line data in line i to line i+1. # 2. change xxx::__ANON__() to "try{} block" # 3. skip the "require" and "Error::subs::try" stack entries (boring) # This means that the first line in the stack won't have any file:line data # But this isn't a big issue since it's for a Bio::Root::-based method # that doesn't vary from exception to exception. sub _reformat_stacktrace { my $self = shift; my $msg = $self->text; my $stack = $self->stacktrace(); $stack =~ s/\Q$msg//; my @stack = split( /\n/, $stack); my @new_stack = (); my ($method, $file, $linenum, $prev_file, $prev_linenum); my $stack_count = 0; foreach my $i( 0..$#stack ) { # print "STACK-ORIG: $stack[$i]\n"; if( ($stack[$i] =~ /^\s*([^(]+)\s*\(.*\) called at (\S+) line (\d+)/) || ($stack[$i] =~ /^\s*(require 0) called at (\S+) line (\d+)/)) { ($method, $file, $linenum) = ($1, $2, $3); $stack_count++; } else{ next; } if( $stack_count == 1 ) { push @new_stack, "STACK: $method"; ($prev_file, $prev_linenum) = ($file, $linenum); next; } if( $method =~ /__ANON__/ ) { $method = "try{} block"; } if( ($method =~ /^require/ and $file =~ /Error\.pm/ ) || ($method =~ /^Error::subs::try/ ) ) { last; } push @new_stack, "STACK: $method $prev_file:$prev_linenum"; ($prev_file, $prev_linenum) = ($file, $linenum); } push @new_stack, "STACK: $prev_file:$prev_linenum"; return join "\n", @new_stack; } =item B< stringify() > Purpose : Overrides Error::stringify() to call pretty_format(). This is called automatically when an exception object is placed between double quotes. Example : catch Bio::Root::Exception with { my $error = shift; print "$error"; } See Also: L<pretty_format()|pretty_format> =cut sub stringify { my ($self, @args) = @_; return $self->pretty_format( @args ); } =back =head1 Subclasses of Bio::Root::Exception =head2 B<Bio::Root::NotImplemented> Purpose : Indicates that a method has not been implemented. Example : throw Bio::Root::NotImplemented( -text => "Method \"foo\" not implemented in module FooBar.", -value => "foo" ); =cut #--------------------------------------------------------- @Bio::Root::NotImplemented::ISA = qw( Bio::Root::Exception ); #--------------------------------------------------------- =head2 B<Bio::Root::IOException> Purpose : Indicates that some input/output-related trouble has occurred. Example : throw Bio::Root::IOException( -text => "Can't save data to file $file.", -value => $! ); =cut #--------------------------------------------------------- @Bio::Root::IOException::ISA = qw( Bio::Root::Exception ); #--------------------------------------------------------- =head2 B<Bio::Root::FileOpenException> Purpose : Indicates that a file could not be opened. Example : throw Bio::Root::FileOpenException( -text => "Can't open file $file for reading.", -value => $! ); =cut #--------------------------------------------------------- @Bio::Root::FileOpenException::ISA = qw( Bio::Root::IOException ); #--------------------------------------------------------- =head2 B<Bio::Root::SystemException> Purpose : Indicates that a system call failed. Example : unlink($file) or throw Bio::Root::SystemException( -text => "Can't unlink file $file.", -value => $! ); =cut #--------------------------------------------------------- @Bio::Root::SystemException::ISA = qw( Bio::Root::Exception ); #--------------------------------------------------------- =head2 B<Bio::Root::BadParameter> Purpose : Indicates that one or more parameters supplied to a method are invalid, unspecified, or conflicting. Example : throw Bio::Root::BadParameter( -text => "Required parameter \"-foo\" was not specified", -value => "-foo" ); =cut #--------------------------------------------------------- @Bio::Root::BadParameter::ISA = qw( Bio::Root::Exception ); #--------------------------------------------------------- =head2 B<Bio::Root::OutOfRange> Purpose : Indicates that a specified (start,end) range or an index to an array is outside the permitted range. Example : throw Bio::Root::OutOfRange( -text => "Start coordinate ($start) cannot be less than zero.", -value => $start ); =cut #--------------------------------------------------------- @Bio::Root::OutOfRange::ISA = qw( Bio::Root::Exception ); #--------------------------------------------------------- =head2 B<Bio::Root::NoSuchThing> Purpose : Indicates that a requested thing cannot be located and therefore could possibly be bogus. Example : throw Bio::Root::NoSuchThing( -text => "Accession M000001 could not be found.", -value => "M000001" ); =cut #--------------------------------------------------------- @Bio::Root::NoSuchThing::ISA = qw( Bio::Root::Exception ); #--------------------------------------------------------- 1;