Raw content of Bio::Root::RootI # $Id: RootI.pm,v 1.61 2002/12/16 09:44:28 birney Exp $ # # BioPerl module for Bio::Root::RootI # # Cared for by Ewan Birney <birney@ebi.ac.uk> # # Copyright Ewan Birney # # You may distribute this module under the same terms as perl itself # POD documentation - main docs before the code # # This was refactored to have chained calls to new instead # of chained calls to _initialize # # added debug and deprecated methods --Jason Stajich 2001-10-12 # =head1 NAME Bio::Root::RootI - Abstract interface to root object code =head1 SYNOPSIS # any bioperl or bioperl compliant object is a RootI # compliant object $obj->throw("This is an exception"); eval { $obj->throw("This is catching an exception"); }; if( $@ ) { print "Caught exception"; } else { print "no exception"; } # Using throw_not_implemented() within a RootI-based interface module: package Foo; @ISA = qw( Bio::Root::RootI ); sub foo { my $self = shift; $self->throw_not_implemented; } =head1 DESCRIPTION This is just a set of methods which do not assume B<anything> about the object they are on. The methods provide the ability to throw exceptions with nice stack traces. This is what should be inherited by all bioperl compliant interfaces, even if they are exotic XS/CORBA/Other perl systems. =head2 Using throw_not_implemented() The method L<throw_not_implemented()|throw_not_implemented> should be called by all methods within interface modules that extend RootI so that if an implementation fails to override them, an exception will be thrown. For example, say there is an interface module called C<FooI> that provides a method called C<foo()>. Since this method is considered abstract within FooI and should be implemented by any module claiming to implement C<FooI>, the C<FooI::foo()> method should consist of the following: sub foo { my $self = shift; $self->throw_not_implemented; } So, if an implementer of C<FooI> forgets to implement C<foo()> and a user of the implementation calls C<foo()>, a B<Bio::Exception::NotImplemented> exception will result. Unfortunately, failure to implement a method can only be determined at run time (i.e., you can't verify that an implementation is complete by running C<perl -wc> on it). So it should be standard practice for a test of an implementation to check each method and verify that it doesn't throw a B<Bio::Exception::NotImplemented>. =head1 CONTACT Functions originally from Steve Chervitz. Refactored by Ewan Birney. Re-refactored by Lincoln Stein. =head1 APPENDIX The rest of the documentation details each of the object methods. Internal methods are usually preceded with a _ =cut # Let the code begin... package Bio::Root::RootI; use vars qw($DEBUG $ID $Revision $VERSION $VERBOSITY); use strict; use Carp 'confess','carp'; BEGIN { $ID = 'Bio::Root::RootI'; $VERSION = 1.0; $Revision = '$Id: RootI.pm,v 1.61 2002/12/16 09:44:28 birney Exp $ '; $DEBUG = 0; $VERBOSITY = 0; } sub new { my $class = shift; my @args = @_; unless ( $ENV{'BIOPERLDEBUG'} ) { carp("Use of new in Bio::Root::RootI is deprecated. Please use Bio::Root::Root instead"); } eval "require Bio::Root::Root"; return Bio::Root::Root->new(@args); } # for backwards compatibility sub _initialize { my($self,@args) = @_; return 1; } =head2 throw Title : throw Usage : $obj->throw("throwing exception message") Function: Throws an exception, which, if not caught with an eval brace will provide a nice stack trace to STDERR with the message Returns : nothing Args : A string giving a descriptive error message =cut sub throw{ my ($self,$string) = @_; my $std = $self->stack_trace_dump(); my $out = "\n-------------------- EXCEPTION --------------------\n". "MSG: ".$string."\n".$std."-------------------------------------------\n"; die $out; } =head2 warn Title : warn Usage : $object->warn("Warning message"); Function: Places a warning. What happens now is down to the verbosity of the object (value of $obj->verbose) verbosity 0 or not set => small warning verbosity -1 => no warning verbosity 1 => warning with stack trace verbosity 2 => converts warnings into throw Example : Returns : Args : =cut sub warn{ my ($self,$string) = @_; my $verbose; if( $self->can('verbose') ) { $verbose = $self->verbose; } else { $verbose = 0; } if( $verbose == 2 ) { $self->throw($string); } elsif( $verbose == -1 ) { return; } elsif( $verbose == 1 ) { my $out = "\n-------------------- WARNING ---------------------\n". "MSG: ".$string."\n"; $out .= $self->stack_trace_dump; print STDERR $out; return; } my $out = "\n-------------------- WARNING ---------------------\n". "MSG: ".$string."\n". "---------------------------------------------------\n"; print STDERR $out; } =head2 deprecated Title : deprecated Usage : $obj->deprecated("Method X is deprecated"); Function: Prints a message about deprecation unless verbose is < 0 (which means be quiet) Returns : none Args : Message string to print to STDERR =cut sub deprecated{ my ($self,$msg) = @_; if( $self->verbose >= 0 ) { print STDERR $msg, "\n", $self->stack_trace_dump; } } =head2 stack_trace_dump Title : stack_trace_dump Usage : Function: Example : Returns : Args : =cut sub stack_trace_dump{ my ($self) = @_; my @stack = $self->stack_trace(); shift @stack; shift @stack; shift @stack; my $out; my ($module,$function,$file,$position); foreach my $stack ( @stack) { ($module,$file,$position,$function) = @{$stack}; $out .= "STACK $function $file:$position\n"; } return $out; } =head2 stack_trace Title : stack_trace Usage : @stack_array_ref= $self->stack_trace Function: gives an array to a reference of arrays with stack trace info each coming from the caller(stack_number) call Returns : array containing a reference of arrays Args : none =cut sub stack_trace{ my ($self) = @_; my $i = 0; my @out; my $prev; while( my @call = caller($i++)) { # major annoyance that caller puts caller context as # function name. Hence some monkeying around... $prev->[3] = $call[3]; push(@out,$prev); $prev = \@call; } $prev->[3] = 'toplevel'; push(@out,$prev); return @out; } =head2 _rearrange Usage : $object->_rearrange( array_ref, list_of_arguments) Purpose : Rearranges named parameters to requested order. Example : $self->_rearrange([qw(SEQUENCE ID DESC)],@param); : Where @param = (-sequence => $s, : -desc => $d, : -id => $i); Returns : @params - an array of parameters in the requested order. : The above example would return ($s, $i, $d). : Unspecified parameters will return undef. For example, if : @param = (-sequence => $s); : the above _rearrange call would return ($s, undef, undef) Argument : $order : a reference to an array which describes the desired : order of the named parameters. : @param : an array of parameters, either as a list (in : which case the function simply returns the list), : or as an associative array with hyphenated tags : (in which case the function sorts the values : according to @{$order} and returns that new array.) : The tags can be upper, lower, or mixed case : but they must start with a hyphen (at least the : first one should be hyphenated.) Source : This function was taken from CGI.pm, written by Dr. Lincoln : Stein, and adapted for use in Bio::Seq by Richard Resnick and : then adapted for use in Bio::Root::Object.pm by Steve Chervitz, : then migrated into Bio::Root::RootI.pm by Ewan Birney. Comments : : Uppercase tags are the norm, : (SAC) : This method may not be appropriate for method calls that are : within in an inner loop if efficiency is a concern. : : Parameters can be specified using any of these formats: : @param = (-name=>'me', -color=>'blue'); : @param = (-NAME=>'me', -COLOR=>'blue'); : @param = (-Name=>'me', -Color=>'blue'); : @param = ('me', 'blue'); : A leading hyphenated argument is used by this function to : indicate that named parameters are being used. : Therefore, the ('me', 'blue') list will be returned as-is. : : Note that Perl will confuse unquoted, hyphenated tags as : function calls if there is a function of the same name : in the current namespace: : -name => 'foo' is interpreted as -&name => 'foo' : : For ultimate safety, put single quotes around the tag: : ('-name'=>'me', '-color' =>'blue'); : This can be a bit cumbersome and I find not as readable : as using all uppercase, which is also fairly safe: : (-NAME=>'me', -COLOR =>'blue'); : : Personal note (SAC): I have found all uppercase tags to : be more managable: it involves less single-quoting, : the key names stand out better, and there are no method naming : conflicts. : The drawbacks are that it's not as easy to type as lowercase, : and lots of uppercase can be hard to read. : : Regardless of the style, it greatly helps to line : the parameters up vertically for long/complex lists. =cut sub _rearrange { my $dummy = shift; my $order = shift; return @_ unless (substr($_[0]||'',0,1) eq '-'); push @_,undef unless $#_ %2; my %param; while( @_ ) { (my $key = shift) =~ tr/a-z\055/A-Z/d; #deletes all dashes! $param{$key} = shift; } map { $_ = uc($_) } @$order; # for bug #1343, but is there perf hit here? return @param{@$order}; } #----------------' sub _rearrange_old { #---------------- my($self,$order,@param) = @_; # JGRG -- This is wrong, because we don't want # to assign empty string to anything, and this # code is actually returning an array 1 less # than the length of @param: ## If there are no parameters, we simply wish to return ## an empty array which is the size of the @{$order} array. #return ('') x $#{$order} unless @param; # ...all we need to do is return an empty array: # return unless @param; # If we've got parameters, we need to check to see whether # they are named or simply listed. If they are listed, we # can just return them. # The mod test fixes bug where a single string parameter beginning with '-' gets lost. # This tends to happen in error messages such as: $obj->throw("-id not defined") return @param unless (defined($param[0]) && $param[0]=~/^-/o && ($#param % 2)); # Tester # print "\n_rearrange() named parameters:\n"; # my $i; for ($i=0;$i<@param;$i+=2) { printf "%20s => %s\n", $param[$i],$param[$i+1]; }; <STDIN>; # Now we've got to do some work on the named parameters. # The next few lines strip out the '-' characters which # preceed the keys, and capitalizes them. for (my $i=0;$i<@param;$i+=2) { $param[$i]=~s/^\-//; $param[$i]=~tr/a-z/A-Z/; } # Now we'll convert the @params variable into an associative array. # local($^W) = 0; # prevent "odd number of elements" warning with -w. my(%param) = @param; # my(@return_array); # What we intend to do is loop through the @{$order} variable, # and for each value, we use that as a key into our associative # array, pushing the value at that key onto our return array. # my($key); #foreach (@{$order}) { # my($value) = $param{$key}; # delete $param{$key}; #push(@return_array,$param{$_}); #} return @param{@{$order}}; # print "\n_rearrange() after processing:\n"; # my $i; for ($i=0;$i<@return_array;$i++) { printf "%20s => %s\n", ${$order}[$i], $return_array[$i]; } <STDIN>; # return @return_array; } =head2 _register_for_cleanup Title : _register_for_cleanup Usage : -- internal -- Function: Register a method to be called at DESTROY time. This is useful and sometimes essential in the case of multiple inheritance for classes coming second in the sequence of inheritance. Returns : Args : a code reference The code reference will be invoked with the object as the first argument, as per a method. You may register an unlimited number of cleanup methods. =cut sub _register_for_cleanup { my ($self,$method) = @_; $self->throw_not_implemented(); } =head2 _unregister_for_cleanup Title : _unregister_for_cleanup Usage : -- internal -- Function: Remove a method that has previously been registered to be called at DESTROY time. If called with a methoda method to be called at DESTROY time. Has no effect if the code reference has not previously been registered. Returns : nothing Args : a code reference =cut sub _unregister_for_cleanup { my ($self,$method) = @_; $self->throw_not_implemented(); } =head2 _cleanup_methods Title : _cleanup_methods Usage : -- internal -- Function: Return current list of registered cleanup methods. Returns : list of coderefs Args : none =cut sub _cleanup_methods { my $self = shift; unless ( $ENV{'BIOPERLDEBUG'} || $self->verbose > 0 ) { carp("Use of Bio::Root::RootI is deprecated. Please use Bio::Root::Root instead"); } return; } =head2 throw_not_implemented Purpose : Throws a Bio::Root::NotImplemented exception. Intended for use in the method definitions of abstract interface modules where methods are defined but are intended to be overridden by subclasses. Usage : $object->throw_not_implemented(); Example : sub method_foo { $self = shift; $self->throw_not_implemented(); } Returns : n/a Args : n/a Throws : A Bio::Root::NotImplemented exception. The message of the exception contains - the name of the method - the name of the interface - the name of the implementing class If this object has a throw() method, $self->throw will be used. If the object doesn't have a throw() method, Carp::confess() will be used. =cut #' sub throw_not_implemented { my $self = shift; my $package = ref $self; my $iface = caller(0); my @call = caller(1); my $meth = $call[3]; my $message = "Abstract method \"$meth\" is not implemented by package $package.\n" . "This is not your fault - author of $package should be blamed!\n"; # Checking if Error.pm is available in case the object isn't decended from # Bio::Root::Root, which knows how to check for Error.pm. # EB - this wasn't working and I couldn't figure out! # SC - OK, since most RootI objects will be Root.pm-based, # and Root.pm can deal with Error.pm. # Still, I'd like to know why it wasn't working... if( $self->can('throw') ) { $self->throw( -text => $message, -class => 'Bio::Root::NotImplemented'); } else { confess $message ; } } =head2 warn_not_implemented Purpose : Generates a warning that a method has not been implemented. Intended for use in the method definitions of abstract interface modules where methods are defined but are intended to be overridden by subclasses. Generally, throw_not_implemented() should be used, but warn_not_implemented() may be used if the method isn't considered essential and convenient no-op behavior can be provided within the interface. Usage : $object->warn_not_implemented( method-name-string ); Example : $self->warn_not_implemented( "get_foobar" ); Returns : Calls $self->warn on this object, if available. If the object doesn't have a warn() method, Carp::carp() will be used. Args : n/a =cut #' sub warn_not_implemented { my $self = shift; my $package = ref $self; my $iface = caller(0); my @call = caller(1); my $meth = $call[3]; my $message = "Abstract method \"$meth\" is not implemented by package $package.\n" . "This is not your fault - author of $package should be blamed!\n"; if( $self->can('warn') ) { $self->warn( $message ); } else { carp $message ; } } 1;