Bio Seq
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Bio::Seq - Sequence object, with features
Package variables
No package variables defined.
Included modules
Bio::AnnotatableI Bio::FeatureHolderI Bio::IdentifiableI Bio::Root::Root Bio::SeqI
    # This is the main sequence object in Bioperl
# gets a sequence from a file $seqio = Bio::SeqIO->new( '-format' => 'embl' , -file => 'myfile.dat'); $seqobj = $seqio->next_seq(); # SeqIO can both read and write sequences; see Bio::SeqIO # for more information and examples # get from database $db = Bio::DB::GenBank->new(); $seqobj = $db->get_Seq_by_acc('X78121'); # make from strings in script $seqobj = Bio::Seq->new( -display_id => 'my_id', -seq => $sequence_as_string); # gets sequence as a string from sequence object $seqstr = $seqobj->seq(); # actual sequence as a string $seqstr = $seqobj->subseq(10,50); # slice in biological coordinates # retrieves information from the sequence # features must implement Bio::SeqFeatureI interface @features = $seqobj->get_SeqFeatures(); # just top level foreach my $feat ( @features ) { print "Feature ",$feat->primary_tag," starts ",$feat->start," ends ", $feat->end," strand ",$feat->strand,"\n"; # features retain link to underlying sequence object print "Feature sequence is ",$feat->seq->seq(),"\n" } # sequences may have a species if( defined $seq->species ) { print "Sequence is from ",$species->binomial_name," [",$species->common_name,"]\n"; } # annotation objects are Bio::AnnotationCollectionI's $ann = $seqobj->annotation(); # annotation object # references is one type of annotations to get. Also get # comment and dblink. Look at Bio::AnnotationCollection for # more information foreach my $ref ( $ann->get_Annotations('reference') ) { print "Reference ",$ref->title,"\n"; } # you can get truncations, translations and reverse complements, these # all give back Bio::Seq objects themselves, though currently with no # features transfered my $trunc = $seqobj->trunc(100,200); my $rev = $seqobj->revcom(); # there are many options to translate - check out the docs my $trans = $seqobj->translate(); # these functions can be chained together my $trans_trunc_rev = $seqobj->trunc(100,200)->revcom->translate();
A Seq object is a sequence with sequence features placed on it. The
Seq object contains a PrimarySeq object for the actual sequence and
also implements its interface.
In Bioperl we have 3 main players that people are going to use frequently
  Bio::PrimarySeq  - just the sequence and its names, nothing else.
Bio::SeqFeatureI - a location on a sequence, potentially with a sequence
and annotation.
Bio::Seq - A sequence and a collection of sequence features
(an aggregate) with its own annotation.
Although Bioperl is not tied heavily to file formats these distinctions do
map to file formats sensibly and for some bioinformaticians this might help
  Bio::PrimarySeq  - Fasta file of a sequence
Bio::SeqFeatureI - A single entry in an EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ feature table
Bio::Seq - A single EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ entry
By having this split we avoid a lot of nasty circular references
(sequence features can hold a reference to a sequence without the sequence
holding a reference to the sequence feature). See Bio::PrimarySeq and
Bio::SeqFeatureI for more information.
Ian Korf really helped in the design of the Seq and SeqFeature system.
No description
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Methods description
accession_numbercode    nextTop
 Title   : accession_number
Usage : $unique_biological_key = $obj->accession_number;
Function: Returns the unique biological id for a sequence, commonly
called the accession_number. For sequences from established
databases, the implementors should try to use the correct
accession number. Notice that primary_id() provides the
unique id for the implemetation, allowing multiple objects
to have the same accession number in a particular implementation.
For sequences with no accession number, this method should return "unknown". Can also be used to set the accession number. Example : $key = $seq->accession_number or $seq->accession_number($key) Returns : A string Args : None or an accession number
 Title   : add_SeqFeature
Usage : $seq->add_SeqFeature($feat);
Function: Adds the given feature object (or each of an array of feature
objects to the feature array of this
sequence. The object passed is required to implement the
Bio::SeqFeatureI interface.
Returns : 1 on success
Args : A Bio::SeqFeatureI implementing object, or an array of such objects.
 Title   : alphabet
Usage : if ( $obj->alphabet eq 'dna' ) { /Do Something/ }
Function: Returns the type of sequence being one of
'dna', 'rna' or 'protein'. This is case sensitive.
This is not called because this would cause upgrade problems from the 0.5 and earlier Seq objects. Returns : A string either 'dna','rna','protein'. NB - the object must make a call of the type - if there is no type specified it has to guess. Args : None
 Title   : annotation
Usage : $ann = $seq->annotation or $seq->annotation($annotation)
Function: Gets or sets the annotation
Returns : Bio::AnnotationCollectionI object
Args : None or Bio::AnnotationCollectionI object
See Bio::AnnotationCollectionI and Bio::Annotation::Collection
for more information
 Title   : authority
Usage : $authority = $obj->authority()
Function: a string which represents the organisation which
granted the namespace, written as the DNS name for
organisation (eg,
Returns : A scalar
 Title   : can_call_new
Usage : if ( $obj->can_call_new ) {
$newobj = $obj->new( %param );
Function: can_call_new returns 1 or 0 depending
on whether an implementation allows new
constructor to be called. If a new constructor
is allowed, then it should take the followed hashed
constructor list.
$myobject->new( -seq => $sequence_as_string, -display_id => $id -accession_number => $accession -alphabet => 'dna', ); Example : Returns : 1 or 0 Args : None
 Title   : desc
Usage : $seqobj->desc($string) or $seqobj->desc()
Function: Sets or gets the description of the sequence
Example :
Returns : The description
Args : The description or none
 Title   : description
Usage : $string = $obj->description()
Function: A text string suitable for displaying to the user a
description. This string is likely to have spaces, but
should not have any newlines or formatting - just plain
text. The string should not be greater than 255 characters
and clients can feel justified at truncating strings at 255
characters for the purposes of display
This is aliased to desc(). Returns : A scalar
 Title   : display_id
Usage : $id = $obj->display_id or $obj->display_id($newid);
Function: Gets or sets the display id, also known as the common name of
the Seq object.
The semantics of this is that it is the most likely string to be used as an identifier of the sequence, and likely to have "human" readability. The id is equivalent to the LOCUS field of the GenBank/EMBL databanks and the ID field of the Swissprot/sptrembl database. In fasta format, the >(\S+) is presumed to be the id, though some people overload the id to embed other information. Bioperl does not use any embedded information in the ID field, and people are encouraged to use other mechanisms (accession field for example, or extending the sequence object) to solve this. Notice that $seq->id() maps to this function, mainly for legacy/convenience issues. Returns : A string Args : None or a new id
 Title   : display_name
Usage : $string = $obj->display_name()
Function: A string which is what should be displayed to the user
the string should have no spaces (ideally, though a cautious
user of this interface would not assumme this) and should be
less than thirty characters (though again, double checking
this is a good idea)
This is aliased to display_id(). Returns : A scalar
 Title   : feature_count
Usage : $seq->feature_count()
Function: Return the number of SeqFeatures attached to a sequence
Returns : integer representing the number of SeqFeatures
Args : None
 Title   : get_SeqFeatures
Usage :
Function: Get the feature objects held by this feature holder.
Features which are not top-level are subfeatures of one or more of the returned feature objects, which means that you must traverse the subfeature arrays of each top-level feature object in order to traverse all features associated with this sequence. Use get_all_SeqFeatures() if you want the feature tree flattened into one single array. Example : Returns : an array of Bio::SeqFeatureI implementing objects Args : none
At some day we may want to expand this method to allow for a feature
filter to be passed in.
 Title   : id
Usage : $id = $seq->id()
Function: This is mapped on display_id
Returns : value of display_id()
Args : [optional] value to update display_id
 Title   : length
Usage : $len = $seq->length()
Example :
Returns : Integer representing the length of the sequence.
Args : None
 Title   : namespace
Usage : $string = $obj->namespace()
Function: A string representing the name space this identifier
is valid in, often the database name or the name
describing the collection
Returns : A scalar
 Title   : new
Usage : $seq = Bio::Seq->new( -seq => 'ATGGGGGTGGTGGTACCCT',
-id => 'human_id',
-accession_number => 'AL000012',
Function: Returns a new Seq object from basic constructors, being a string for the sequence and strings for id and accession_number Returns : a new Bio::Seq object
 Title   : object_id
Usage : $string = $obj->object_id()
Function: a string which represents the stable primary identifier
in this namespace of this object. For DNA sequences this
is its accession_number, similarly for protein sequences
This is aliased to accession_number(). Returns : A scalar
 Title   : primary_id
Usage : $unique_implementation_key = $obj->primary_id;
Function: Returns the unique id for this object in this
implementation. This allows implementations to manage
their own object ids in a way the implementation can control
clients can expect one id to map to one object.
For sequences with no natural id, this method should return a stringified memory location. Can also be used to set the primary_id. Also notice that this method is not delegated to the internal Bio::PrimarySeq object [Note this method name is likely to change in 1.3] Example : $id = $seq->primary_id or $seq->primary_id($id) Returns : A string Args : None or an id
 Title   : primary_seq
Usage : $seq->primary_seq or $seq->primary_seq($newval)
Function: Get or set a PrimarySeq object
Example :
Returns : PrimarySeq object
Args : None or PrimarySeq object
 Title   : remove_SeqFeatures
Usage : $seq->remove_SeqFeatures();
Function: Flushes all attached SeqFeatureI objects.
To remove individual feature objects, delete those from the returned array and re-add the rest. Example : Returns : The array of Bio::SeqFeatureI objects removed from this seq. Args : None
 Title   : seq
Usage : $string = $obj->seq()
Function: Get/Set the sequence as a string of letters. The
case of the letters is left up to the implementer.
Suggested cases are upper case for proteins and lower case for
DNA sequence (IUPAC standard),
but implementations are suggested to keep an open mind about
case (some users... want mixed case!)
Returns : A scalar
Args : Optionally on set the new value (a string). An optional second
argument presets the alphabet (otherwise it will be guessed).
Both parameters may also be given in named paramater style
with -seq and -alphabet being the names.
 Title   : species
Usage : $species = $seq->species() or $seq->species($species)
Function: Gets or sets the species
Returns : Bio::Species object
Args : None or Bio::Species object
See Bio::Species for more information
 Title   : subseq
Usage : $substring = $obj->subseq(10,40);
Function: Returns the subseq from start to end, where the first base
is 1 and the number is inclusive, ie 1-2 are the first two
bases of the sequence
Start cannot be larger than end but can be equal Returns : A string Args : 2 integers
 Title   : validate_seq
Usage : if(! $seq->validate_seq($seq_str) ) {
print "sequence $seq_str is not valid for an object of type ",
ref($seq), "\n";
Function: Validates a given sequence string. A validating sequence string
must be accepted by seq(). A string that does not validate will
lead to an exception if passed to seq().
The implementation provided here does not take alphabet() into account. Allowed are all letters (A-Z) and '-','.', and '*'. Example : Returns : 1 if the supplied sequence string is valid for the object, and 0 otherwise. Args : The sequence string to be validated.
 Title   : version
Usage : $version = $obj->version()
Function: a number which differentiates between versions of
the same object. Higher numbers are considered to be
later and more relevant, but a single object described
the same identifier should represent the same concept
Returns : A number
Methods code
sub accession {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->warn(ref($self)."::accession is deprecated, ".
		"use accession_number() instead");
    return $self->accession_number(@_);

sub accession_number {
   return shift->primary_seq->accession_number(@_);
sub add_SeqFeature {
   my ($self,@feat) = @_;

   $self->{'_as_feat'} = [] unless $self->{'_as_feat'};

   foreach my $feat ( @feat ) {
       if( !$feat->isa("Bio::SeqFeatureI") ) {
	   $self->throw("$feat is not a SeqFeatureI and that's what we expect...");

       # make sure we attach ourselves to the feature if the feature wants it
my $aseq = $self->primary_seq; $feat->attach_seq($aseq) if $aseq; push(@{$self->{'_as_feat'}},$feat); } return 1;
sub all_SeqFeatures {
    return shift->get_all_SeqFeatures(@_);
sub alphabet {
   my $self = shift;
   return $self->primary_seq->alphabet(@_) if @_ && defined $_[0];
   return $self->primary_seq->alphabet();
sub annotation {
    my ($obj,$value) = @_;
    if( defined $value ) {
	$obj->throw("object of class ".ref($value)." does not implement ".
		    "Bio::AnnotationCollectionI. Too bad.")
	    unless $value->isa("Bio::AnnotationCollectionI");
	$obj->{'_annotation'} = $value;
    } elsif( ! defined $obj->{'_annotation'}) {
	$obj->{'_annotation'} = new Bio::Annotation::Collection;
    return $obj->{'_annotation'};
sub authority {
    return shift->primary_seq()->authority(@_);
sub can_call_new {
    return 1;
sub desc {
   return shift->primary_seq->desc(@_);
sub description {
    return shift->desc(@_);
sub display_id {
   return shift->primary_seq->display_id(@_);
sub display_name {
    return shift->display_id(@_);
sub feature_count {
    my ($self) = @_;

    if (defined($self->{'_as_feat'})) {
	return ($#{$self->{'_as_feat'}} + 1);
    } else {
	return 0;
sub get_SeqFeatures {
   my $self = shift;

   if( !defined $self->{'_as_feat'} ) {
       $self->{'_as_feat'} = [];

   return @{$self->{'_as_feat'}};
sub id {
    return shift->display_id(@_);
sub length {
    return shift->primary_seq()->length(@_);
sub namespace {
    return shift->primary_seq()->namespace(@_);
sub new {
    my($caller,@args) = @_;

    if( $caller ne 'Bio::Seq') {
	$caller = ref($caller) if ref($caller);

    # we know our inherietance heirarchy
my $self = Bio::Root::Root->new(@args); bless $self,$caller; # this is way too sneaky probably. We delegate the construction of
# the Seq object onto PrimarySeq and then pop primary_seq into
# our primary_seq slot
my $pseq = Bio::PrimarySeq->new(@args); # as we have just made this, we know it is ok to set hash directly
# rather than going through the method
$self->{'primary_seq'} = $pseq; # setting this array is now delayed until the final
# moment, again speed ups for non feature containing things
# $self->{'_as_feat'} = [];
my ($ann, $pid,$feat,$species) = &Bio::Root::RootI::_rearrange($self,[qw(ANNOTATION PRIMARY_ID FEATURES SPECIES)], @args); # for a number of cases - reading fasta files - these are never set. This
# gives a quick optimisation around testing things later on
if( defined $ann || defined $pid || defined $feat || defined $species ) { $pid && $self->primary_id($pid); $species && $self->species($species); $ann && $self->annotation($ann); if( defined $feat ) { if( ref($feat) !~ /ARRAY/i ) { if( ref($feat) && $feat->isa('Bio::SeqFeatureI') ) { $self->add_SeqFeature($feat); } else { $self->warn("Must specify a valid Bio::SeqFeatureI or ArrayRef of Bio::SeqFeatureI's with the -features init parameter for ".ref($self)); } } else { foreach my $feature ( @$feat ) { $self->add_SeqFeature($feature); } } } } return $self;
sub object_id {
    return shift->accession_number(@_);
sub primary_id {
   my ($obj,$value) = @_;

   if( defined $value) {
      $obj->{'primary_id'} = $value;
   if( ! exists $obj->{'primary_id'} ) {
       return "$obj";
   return $obj->{'primary_id'};
sub primary_seq {
   my ($obj,$value) = @_;

   if( defined $value) {
       if( ! ref $value || ! $value->isa('Bio::PrimarySeqI') ) {
	   $obj->throw("$value is not a Bio::PrimarySeq compliant object");

       $obj->{'primary_seq'} = $value;
       # descend down over all seqfeature objects, seeing whether they
# want an attached seq.
foreach my $sf ( $obj->get_SeqFeatures() ) { $sf->attach_seq($value); } } return $obj->{'primary_seq'};
sub remove_SeqFeatures {
    my $self = shift;

    return () unless $self->{'_as_feat'};
    my @feats = @{$self->{'_as_feat'}};
    $self->{'_as_feat'} = [];
    return @feats;
sub seq {
    return shift->primary_seq()->seq(@_);
sub species {
    my ($self, $species) = @_;
    if ($species) {
        $self->{'species'} = $species;
    } else {
        return $self->{'species'};
sub subseq {
    return shift->primary_seq()->subseq(@_);
sub validate_seq {
    return shift->primary_seq()->validate_seq(@_);
sub version {
    return shift->primary_seq->version(@_);
General documentation
A simple and fundamental block of code
  use Bio::SeqIO;
my $seqIOobj = Bio::SeqIO->new(-file=>"1.fa"); # create a SeqIO object my $seqobj = $seqIOobj->next_seq; # get a Seq object
With the Seq object in hand one has access to a powerful set of Bioperl
methods and Bioperl objects. This next script will take a file of sequences
in EMBL format and create a file of the reverse-complemented sequences
in Fasta format using Seq objects. It also prints out details about the
exons it finds as sequence features in Genbank Flat File format.
  use Bio::Seq;
use Bio::SeqIO;
$seqin = Bio::SeqIO->new( -format => 'EMBL' , -file => 'myfile.dat'); $seqout= Bio::SeqIO->new( -format => 'Fasta', -file => '>output.fa'); while((my $seqobj = $seqin->next_seq())) { print "Seen sequence ",$seqobj->display_id,", start of seq ", substr($seqobj->seq,1,10),"\n"; if( $seqobj->alphabet eq 'dna') { $rev = $seqobj->revcom; $id = $seqobj->display_id(); $id = "$id.rev"; $rev->display_id($id); $seqout->write_seq($rev); } foreach $feat ( $seqobj->get_SeqFeatures() ) { if( $feat->primary_tag eq 'exon' ) { print STDOUT "Location ",$feat->start,":", $feat->end," GFF[",$feat->gff_string,"]\n"; } } }
Let's examine the script. The lines below import the Bioperl modules.
Seq is the main Bioperl sequence object and SeqIO is the Bioperl support
for reading sequences from files and to files
  use Bio::Seq;
use Bio::SeqIO;
These two lines create two SeqIO streams: one for reading in sequences
and one for outputting sequences:
  $seqin = Bio::SeqIO->new( -format => 'EMBL' , -file => 'myfile.dat');
$seqout= Bio::SeqIO->new( -format => 'Fasta', -file => '>output.fa');
Notice that in the "$seqout" case there is a greater-than sign,
indicating the file is being opened for writing.
Using the
  '-argument' => value
syntax is common in Bioperl. The file argument is like an argument
to open() . You can also pass in filehandles or FileHandle objects by
using the -fh argument (see Bio::SeqIO documentation for details).
Many formats in Bioperl are handled, including Fasta, EMBL, GenBank,
Swissprot (swiss), PIR, and GCG.
  $seqin = Bio::SeqIO->new( -format => 'EMBL' , -file => 'myfile.dat');
$seqout= Bio::SeqIO->new( -format => 'Fasta', -file => '>output.fa');
This is the main loop which will loop progressively through sequences
in a file, and each call to $seqio->next_seq() provides a new Seq
object from the file:
  while((my $seqobj = $seqio->next_seq())) {
This print line below accesses fields in the Seq object directly. The
$seqobj->display_id is the way to access the display_id attribute
of the Seq object. The $seqobj->seq method gets the actual
sequence out as string. Then you can do manipulation of this if
you want to (there are however easy ways of doing truncation,
reverse-complement and translation).
  print "Seen sequence ",$seqobj->display_id,", start of seq ",
Bioperl has to guess the alphabet of the sequence, being either 'dna',
'rna', or 'protein'. The alphabet attribute is one of these three
  if( $seqobj->alphabet eq 'dna') {
The $seqobj->revcom method provides the reverse complement of the Seq
object as another Seq object. Thus, the $rev variable is a reference to
another Seq object. For example, one could repeat the above print line
for this Seq object (putting $rev in place of $seqobj). In this
case we are going to output the object into the file stream we built
earlier on.
  $rev = $seqobj->revcom;
When we output it, we want the id of the outputted object
to be changed to "$id.rev", ie, with .rev on the end of the name. The
following lines retrieve the id of the sequence object, add .rev
to this and then set the display_id of the rev sequence object to
this. Notice that to set the display_id attribute you just need
call the same method, display_id(), with the new value as an argument.
Getting and setting values with the same method is common in Bioperl.
  $id  = $seqobj->display_id();
$id = "$id.rev";
The write_seq method on the SeqIO output object, $seqout, writes the
$rev object to the filestream we built at the top of the script.
The filestream knows that it is outputting in fasta format, and
so it provides fasta output.
This block of code loops over sequence features in the sequence
object, trying to find ones who have been tagged as 'exon'.
Features have start and end attributes and can be outputted
in Genbank Flat File format, GFF, a standarized format for sequence
  foreach $feat ( $seqobj->get_SeqFeatures() ) {
if( $feat->primary_tag eq 'exon' ) {
print STDOUT "Location ",$feat->start,":",
$feat->end," GFF[",$feat->gff_string,"]\n";
The code above shows how a few Bio::Seq methods suffice to read, parse,
reformat and analyze sequences from a file. A full list of methods
available to Bio::Seq objects is shown below. Bear in mind that some of
these methods come from PrimarySeq objects, which are simpler
than Seq objects, stripped of features (see Bio::PrimarySeq for
more information).
  # these methods return strings, and accept strings in some cases:
$seqobj->seq(); # string of sequence $seqobj->subseq(5,10); # part of the sequence as a string $seqobj->accession_number(); # when there, the accession number $seqobj->moltype(); # one of 'dna','rna',or 'protein' $seqobj->seq_version() # when there, the version $seqobj->keywords(); # when there, the Keywords line $seqobj->length() # length $seqobj->desc(); # description $seqobj->primary_id(); # a unique id for this sequence regardless # of its display_id or accession number $seqobj->display_id(); # the human readable id of the sequence
Some of these values map to fields in common formats. For example, The
display_id() method returns the LOCUS name of a Genbank entry,
the (\S+) following the > character in a Fasta file, the ID from
a SwissProt file, and so on. The desc() method will return the DEFINITION
line of a Genbank file, the description following the display_id in a
Fasta file, and the DE field in a SwissProt file.
  # the following methods return new Seq objects, but
# do not transfer features across to the new object:
$seqobj->trunc(5,10) # truncation from 5 to 10 as new object $seqobj->revcom # reverse complements sequence $seqobj->translate # translation of the sequence # if new() can be called this method returns 1, else 0 $seqobj->can_call_new # the following method determines if the given string will be accepted # by the seq() method - if the string is acceptable then validate() # returns 1, or 0 if not $seqobj->validate_seq($string) # the following method returns or accepts a Species object: $seqobj->species();
Please see Bio::Species for more information on this object.
  # the following method returns or accepts an Annotation object
# which in turn allows access to Annotation::Reference
# and Annotation::Comment objects:
These annotations typically refer to entire sequences, unlike
features. See Bio::AnnotationCollectionI,
Bio::Annotation::Collection, Bio::Annotation::Reference, and
Bio::Annotation::Comment for details.
It is also important to be able to describe defined portions of a
sequence. The combination of some description and the corresponding
sub-sequence is called a feature - an exon and its coordinates within
a gene is an example of a feature, or a domain within a protein.
  # the following methods return an array of SeqFeatureI objects:
$seqobj->get_SeqFeatures # The 'top level' sequence features $seqobj->get_all_SeqFeatures # All sequence features, including sub-seq # features, such as features in an exon # to find out the number of features use: $seqobj->feature_count
Here are just some of the methods available to SeqFeatureI objects:
  # these methods return numbers:
$feat->start # start position (1 is the first base) $feat->end # end position (2 is the second base) $feat->strand # 1 means forward, -1 reverse, 0 not relevant # these methods return or accept strings: $feat->primary_tag # the name of the sequence feature, eg # 'exon', 'glycoslyation site', 'TM domain' $feat->source_tag # where the feature comes from, eg, 'EMBL_GenBank', # or 'BLAST' # this method returns the more austere PrimarySeq object, not a # Seq object - the main difference is that PrimarySeq objects do not # themselves contain sequence features $feat->seq # the sequence between start,end on the # correct strand of the sequence
See Bio::PrimarySeq for more details on PrimarySeq objects.
  # useful methods for feature comparisons, for start/end points
$feat->overlaps($other) # do $feat and $other overlap? $feat->contains($other) # is $other completely within $feat? $feat->equals($other) # do $feat and $other completely agree? # one can also add features $seqobj->add_SeqFeature($feat) # returns 1 if successful $seqobj->add_SeqFeature(@features) # returns 1 if successful # sub features. For complex join() statements, the feature # is one sequence feature with many sub SeqFeatures $feat->sub_SeqFeature # returns array of sub seq features
Please see Bio::SeqFeatureI and Bio::SeqFeature::Generic,
for more information on sequence features.
It is worth mentioning that one can also retrieve the start and end
positions of a feature using a Bio::LocationI object:
  $location = $feat->location # $location is a Bio::LocationI object
$location->start; # start position
$location->end; # end position
This is useful because one needs a Bio::Location::SplitLocationI object
in order to retrieve the coordinates inside the Genbank or EMBL join()
statements (e.g. "CDS join(51..142,273..495,1346..1474)"):
  if ( $feat->location->isa('Bio::Location::SplitLocationI') &&
$feat->primary_tag eq 'CDS' ) {
foreach $loc ( $feat->location->sub_Location ) {
print $loc->start . ".." . $loc->end . "\n";
See Bio::LocationI and Bio::Location::SplitLocationI for more
Implemented InterfacesTop
This class implements the following interfaces.
    Note that this includes implementing Bio::PrimarySeqI.
Mailing ListsTop
User feedback is an integral part of the evolution of this and other
Bioperl modules. Send your comments and suggestions preferably to one
of the Bioperl mailing lists. Your participation is much appreciated.              - General discussion - About the mailing lists
Reporting BugsTop
Report bugs to the Bioperl bug tracking system to help us keep track
the bugs and their resolution. Bug reports can be submitted via email
or the web:
AUTHOR - Ewan Birney, inspired by Ian Korf objectsTop
Jason Stajich <>
The rest of the documentation details each of the object
methods. Internal methods are usually preceded with a "_".
PrimarySeq interfaceTop
The PrimarySeq interface provides the basic sequence getting
and setting methods for on all sequences.
These methods implement the Bio::PrimarySeq interface by delegating
to the primary_seq inside the object. This means that you
can use a Seq object wherever there is a PrimarySeq, and
of course, you are free to use these functions anyway.
Methods from the Bio::PrimarySeqI interfaceTop
Methods for Bio::IdentifiableI complianceTop
Methods for Bio::DescribableI complianceTop
Methods for implementing Bio::AnnotatableITop
Methods to implement Bio::FeatureHolderITop
This includes methods for retrieving, adding, and removing features.
 Title   : get_all_SeqFeatures
Usage : @feat_ary = $seq->get_all_SeqFeatures();
Function: Returns the tree of feature objects attached to this
sequence object flattened into one single array. Top-level
features will still contain their subfeature-arrays, which
means that you will encounter subfeatures twice if you
traverse the subfeature tree of the returned objects.
Use get_SeqFeatures() if you want the array to contain only the top-level features. Returns : An array of Bio::SeqFeatureI implementing objects. Args : None
Methods provided in the Bio::PrimarySeqI interfaceTop
These methods are inherited from the PrimarySeq interface
and work as one expects, building new Bio::Seq objects
or other information as expected. See Bio::PrimarySeq
for more information.
Sequence Features are not transfered to the new objects.
This is possibly a mistake. Anyone who feels the urge in
dealing with this is welcome to give it a go.
 Title   : revcom
Usage : $rev = $seq->revcom()
Function: Produces a new Bio::Seq object which
is the reversed complement of the sequence. For protein
sequences this throws an exception of "Sequence is a protein.
Cannot revcom"
The id is the same id as the original sequence, and the accession number is also identical. If someone wants to track that this sequence has be reversed, it needs to define its own extensions To do an in-place edit of an object you can go: $seq = $seq->revcom(); This of course, causes Perl to handle the garbage collection of the old object, but it is roughly speaking as efficient as an in-place edit. Returns : A new (fresh) Bio::Seq object Args : None
 Title   : trunc
Usage : $subseq = $myseq->trunc(10,100);
Function: Provides a truncation of a sequence
Example : Returns : A fresh Seq object Args : A Seq object
Seq only methodsTop
These methods are specific to the Bio::Seq object, and not
found on the Bio::PrimarySeq object
Internal methodsTop